Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania’s name is a combination of Tanganyika, which is the mainland and Zanzibar, the offshore archipelago. These two former British colonies were united in 1964, which created the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania. 1996 moved the government seat from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, which made Dodoma became the capital of Tanzania.
Northeastern Tanzania is mountainous and there is Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro. In the north and west is Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake, Lake Tanganyika is the deepest lake in Africa. Central Tanzania is open countryside and just off the east coast of the Zanzibar. Tanzania borders including to Kenya and Uganda to the north and to Malawi and Zambia in the south.

History

Current Tanzania is one of the areas in the world that has been inhabited for the longest time. It has the Olduvai in northern Tanzania found human skeletons and footprints that is two million years old. For 10 000 years ago the area was inhabited probably by Khoisan-speaking peoples, who gradually beblandades the north moved kushitiska people. The latter is believed to have introduced agriculture to the area.
For about 2000 years ago bantufolk to East Africa during the great African exodus known as bantuexpansionen. They brought such with the art of making iron, and new, more advanced political system.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans who called at Zanzibar. They had for a time control of the island. 1698 colonized the island of the Sultanate of Oman, where the big kryddplantagerna on the island was built. It was also in ivory and slaves. The island became the hub of the slave trade across the Indian Ocean, with a turnover of up to 50,000 slaves annually. While Zanzibar and Spice Islands off the Tanzanian coast soon became a hub of commerce in the Indian Ocean, the East African hinterland remained more isolated.
In the 1700s immigrated Maasai from north to southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, and during the 1800s was massajriket a regional power.
At the end of the 1800s, Zanzibar was conquered by Germany. The island was part of the German protectorate of German East Africa from 1885 to 1890, when the island came under British protectorate in exchange for Britain left the island of Helgoland in the North Sea to Germany through the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty.
Tanganyika was colonized by German conquerors between 1886 and 1919 and was named German East Africa. Karl Peters negotiated a treaty with the chiefs in the area between the rivers Rufiji and Pangani. They gave him power over the “forever”. The area was the northern half of present-day Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda. Gradually German state over. After the First World War it was conquered and divided between Portugal, Belgium (Rwanda and Burundi) and England. In 1922, England Tanganyika as a mandate territory of NF.
Tanganyika became independent from Britain 9 december 1961 and Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963. On April 26, 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar formed the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which is October 29, 1964 was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.
Julius Nyerere was the country’s leader since independence in 1961, issued the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which meant that the country would be characterized by equality, socialism and self-sufficiency. Agricultural land was collectivized in what was called Ujamaa. This indigenous form of communism led to increased poverty, which, after Nyerere’s resignation in 1985 was clear even for the regime. Liberalization took place and in 1995 allowed opposition parties to stand in elections.
Zanzibar is an autonomous part of Tanzania, and choose their own state president. Around the elections held since 1995, there have been widespread demonstrations and electoral process is of international observers deemed incorrect. Zanzibar President belong to the same party (CCM) as Union president.

Economy

Tanzania is a poor country where agriculture is the main industry and accounts for half of GDP, 85% of exports and employs 80% of the workforce. The country’s topography and climate makes cultivation is limited to 4% of the country. More than 30% of the population is very poor and the income gap between those who earn the most and those who earn at least is very large.
World Bank and IMF has allocated funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s outdated economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the growth has increased, including gold mining, oil and natural gas.
Approximately 80% of electricity is produced by hydropower and the remaining fossil fuels. In addition to the imported some electricity.

Flights to Tanzania

From Europe, it is several flights to Tanzania. KLM and Ethiopian Airlines operates as to Dar es Salaam, but it can also flights to Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar.